The Keirin race started back in 1948 but today it's regulated by the JKA foundation and is part of the Olympics.
There is a Keirin School, that looks super intensive, where cyclists go to train for this race. They train for more than three hours every day on top of other studies. It sounds kind of fun to me, but I'm sure that it's such a challenge.
Check out the book Fixed: Fixed-Gear Bike Culture by Andrew Edwards and Max Leonard. It's a great book if you're interested in a bit of history behind the fixed gear bicycle. I picked mine up here.
You can also read about the book on this website.
Photo Credit: altalang.com